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 Automobile Electrical System    Industry
Automobile Electrical System Industry
Worldwide automobile electrical parts industry accounts for approximately US $ 45 billion, which is further expected to witness a growth of US $ 52 billion by 2010. European region is the largest market of automobile electrical products with 27.83% of market share, followed by Japan and North America. The automotive connectors industry accounts for 11%, while automotive batteries sector occupies a share of 19.8% and lighting sector industry absorbs a share of 4.8%.

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Automotive Components & Parts  »  Automotive Industry Directory  »  Automobile Electrical System

Automobile Electrical System
Automobile Electrical System Automobile Electrical System
Automobile Electrical System
Automobile electrical system has gradually evolved over the years and today it assimilates automatic computer control of the automotive mechanics. In the early days, automobiles electrical system comprised of only basic wiring technologies that were used for distributing power to other parts of a vehicle. It had only switches, wires, relays and controlled motors as its key components but today’s electrical system includes sensors, actuators, alternators, battery, oxygen sensors, generator, starter solenoid, starter drive, high power electrical system and other devices.

Components of Automobile Electrical System 

Armature Automobile Battery Automobile Ignition System
Automobile Starting System: Automotive Computer Chips Automotive Electrical Wiring:
Charging System Spark Plugs

 
Armature are the moving parts of an electric machine generally alternators, generator or motors of a vehicle, which vibrates when electromotive force is produced. The armature used in automobile comprises of a series of coils and groups of insulated conductors circumscribed around a core of iron. Also known as the rotating part of a dynamo, armatures are generally fixed on ball bearings and are mostly made of copper wire coiled around an iron core.
The major functions of armature are:
Firstly, to produce an electromotive force.
Secondly, to transmit current in a rotating machines and force in a linear machine.

Armature
 
Automobile Battery
Automobile Battery refers to an electrochemical device comprising of primary and secondary cells that are used for transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. Most of the vehicles today uses ‘lead acid’ batteries. Batteries are mostly of two types i.e. non-rechargeable and rechargeable. Often called as disposable batteries, non-rechargeable batteries are used once and then dumped. While rechargeable batteries are those devices that can be easily recharged by applying electrical current that turns or reverses a chemical reaction. A normal battery has an initial voltage of about 1.6 volts and produces between 500-1000 amps. The market size of automobile battery industry is worth US $ 48 billion a year. China, Hong Kong, United States, India and Taiwan are the major battery manufacturing countries on the global platform.
Classification of various components of a battery includes:

 
Automobile Ignition System constitute of various devices, tools and components that are used for igniting the fuel in an internal combustion engine of a vehicle. In this system, electric current is used for burning the mixture of air and fuel with the help of coil, battery, and spark plug. Ignition system is assembled in only those automobile engines, which operates with the help of petrol or gasoline. The two main functions of automobile ignition system are to produce enough voltage so that it can easily create a spark for burning air/fuel mixture and secondly it exercises control over the timing of spark and transmit it to the apt cylinder. A typical automobile ignition system produces voltage somewhere between 20000 volts and 50000 volts from a 12-volt source. Automobile ignition system can be further classified into three main heads such as mechanical ignition system, electronic ignition system and distributorless ignition system. Most of the vehicles today incorporate electronic ignition system in its engine.
Major Components used in automobile ignition systems are:

Automobile Ignition System

Automobile Ignition System
 
Automobile Starting System
Automobile Starting System is considered to be the heart of automobile electrical system. The starting system of an automobile includes those devices, which are used for initiating an engine of a vehicle. Once the key is put into the ignition switch then the current pass through battery cables to starter motor. After this, starter motor turn the engine and the downward moving piston create suction where air and fuel mixture is burned and then the engine starts.
The chief components of automobile starting system are:

 
Automotive Computer Chips also known as super chip, automotive computer chips are basically the integrated circuits made of semi conducting material that are used for storing a new engine management program in the electronic control unit of the vehicle. These chips stores the data used by engine control unit, for managing and controlling the engine functions. Oxygen sensor is one of the types of automobile computer chips that form an important part of the engine fuel control feedback loop. Automotive Computer Chips comprises of:
Other automobile computer chips include:

Automotive Computer Chips
 
Automotive Electrical Wiring
The electrical wiring system of an automobile incorporate different types of devices, flexible electrical wires, electrical fuses, connectors, fuse blocks used for fastening one end of an automobile component to the power source device. These electrical wiring components are used for bearing mechanical loads and transmitting communication signals or electrical energy.
Apart from electrical wiring components mentioned above, there are other parts used in an automobile electrical system like:

 
The charging system of an automobile has three basic components such as alternator, regulator, and the interconnecting wiring. The main function of automobile charging system is to control and regulate the charge in the battery of a vehicle. Automobile charging system generally generates a voltage between 13.5 and 14.4 volts when the engine is working. It produces electrical current for operating automobile lights, music systems, heater, engine electrical system and other electrical components.
Other components of charging system of the vehicle are:

Charging System
 
Spark Plugs
A spark plug is a small electrical device that is implanted into internal combustion engine cylinder for burning the mixture of air and fuel. A typical spark plug consists of a center electrode, metal casing and a ground electrode as illustrated in the figure. These plugs are used in many machines such as trucks, buses, tractors, boats, aircraft, motorcycles, scooters, industrial and oil field engines, and oil burners. The basic raw materials used for manufacturing spark plugs are aluminum oxide, steel, silver, gold, platinum, copper and other high nickel alloys. These spark plugs are available in different configurations and heat ranges to adapt to any type of engine.
Other spark plug components are:



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